For 2019CE, on the Gregorian Calendar, today is the last day of Hanukkah. On the Hebrew Calendar, it Begins 25 Kislev, and ends 2 Tevet or 3 Tevet on some years. The Holiday is supposed to last 8 Days, and the background from this is a story that during a revolt, the Jews only had enough oil to light a candle for 1 Day, but it lasted 8 days. Judea had been part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom until 200 BCE when the Seleucid Empire took it over. Antiochus III the Great was the leader of the Empire at the time. Antiochus III allowed the Jews to continue to live their lives how they had before and to keep their https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Maccabean_revolt.jpgcustoms. After Antiochus III died, their successor, Antiochus IV did not allow the Jews to keeps their customs and traditions, and they outlawed Judaism. Antiochus IV demanded that a statue of Zeus be put in a temple which was previously used for Judaism. . Mattathias (Mattityahu), a Jewish priest, and his five sons Jochanan, Simeon, Eleazar, Jonathan, and Judah led a rebellion against Antiochus IV. This would eventually what would lead to Hanukkah. Mattathias killed a Jew which was complying to the conversion of the Temple and the Rebellion had begun. Later Judah had retaken the temple and “cleansed” it (meaning they made it Jewish again rather than Greek). According to the Talmud, unadulterated and undefiled pure olive oil with the seal of the kohen gadol (high priest) was needed for the menorah in the Temple, which was required to burn throughout the night every night. This is why they needed the candles so much and why the holiday was declared. The revolt was know as the Maccabean Revolt as it was from a type of Jews who rebelled. Judea then became an Independent Nation which lead to the independent Hasmonean dynasty . The new country was located in Modern Day Palestine and Israel. Israel is the modern day country where the Jews live, though it is in conflict with a country called Palestine which also owns Jewish Lands but is mostly Muslim. Neither Palestine nor Israel are fully recognised around the world, and they have land disputes.
PLEASE NOTE: THESE DO NOT REPRESENT MY RELIGIOUS VIEWS, I AM JUST TRYING TO EXPLAIN THE HISTORICAL PARTS OF HANUKKAH AND TO TELL PEOPLE ABOUT WHAT IT IS ABOUT, I AM NOT PROMOTING ANY RELIGION.